JUST WHO IS FLAT-EARTHING?
Some realities of HIV for South Africa, based on a three-year
investigation into HIV/AIDS communication
By Anita Allen
Research & Analysis 24 Feb. 2002
"Then you should say what you mean," the March Hare went on.
"I do," Alice hastily replied;
"at least – at least I mean what I say – that’s the same thing you know."
"Not the same thing a bit!’ said the Hatter.
"Why, you might just as well say that ‘I see what I eat’ is the
same thing as ‘I eat what I see!’ "
-- Alice’s Adventures in
Wonderland, Lewis Carroll (1865).
Dissent from the hypothesis that HIV causes AIDS "flies in the face
of reality", argued Press Ombudsman of South Africa Ed Linington in
turning down a complaint against the Johannesburg-based Mail &
Guardian newspaper in October 2000. He described it as comparable to
being a flat-earther among round-earthers.
The complainants appealed on the basis that Linington had not
properly applied his mind in making his judgment on a two-page article
"All the president’s scientists: diary of a round-earther" (1) about
the Presidential AIDS Advisory Panel (PAAP).
Printing statements that accredited members of the best academies of
science and employees of respected research institutions are
"flat-earthers", and the work they do is "pseudo-science" is untrue and
defamatory, argued the Forum for Debating AIDS South Africa
Arch-rebel Professor Peter Duesberg from the University of
California-Berkeley has sparked off 20 years of microbiologists, campus
tearooms etc. In 1987 he published a paper entitled "Retroviruses as
Pathogens: Expectations and Reality" (2) in which he argued that there
was no evidence to suggest that retroviruses were anything other than
harmless, benign "passengers" of the human genome, where they
constituted about 1% or so of the genetic material from our
evolutionary history. He’s an honourable member of the US National
Academy of Sciences despite petitions to drop him from the roll.
Duesberg has paid for his minority view on retroviruses with grant
money dropping from seriously big to small in the US. In microbiology
States-side it doesn’t pay to question "germ theory" but only flat
earthers suggest he is one of their club.
Unlike Galileo, he has refused to retract on HIV/AIDS or cancer. He
is crackerjack at defining the germ and gene chemistry edge of the
envelope in the latest single author version of his book "Inventing the
AIDS Virus" (Regenery Press).
"Flat-earth" and "pseudo-science" labels are unambiguous that
Duesberg and others were unhinged on the fundamentals of science, the
FDASA argued in support of its contention that Ombudsman Linington
could not have applied mind to matter.
Press Ombudsman Reality
The Appeal Panel of the Press Ombudsman of South Africa overturned
its own Ombudsman’s judgment. Chairman Professor Fikile Ndaki said the
M&G was in breach of Section 3.3 of the Code: "Comment by the
press SHALL BE AN HONEST EXPRESSION OF OPINION AND SHALL TAKE FAIR
ACCOUNT OF ALL AVAILABLE FACTS WHICH ARE MATERIAL TO THE MATTER
COMMENTED UPON." (His capitals)
Ndaki upheld the arguments of Robin MacGregor, who represented the
interests of the public on the Appeal Panel. "The content of the
article was unbalanced and seriously biased against ‘dissident
views’, Macgregor wrote. "It was also snide sarcastic and
offensive in its comments on a number of individual dissident members
of the Panel."
The remaining member of the Appeal Panel, an editor in Natal, argued
"All’s fair in love and war". An unfortunate, but illuminating choice
as a guiding principle for reporting on HIV/AIDS or any issue – and
from an anonymous source, as well.
In South Africa, mainstream media (print, TV, radio and the South
African Journal of Science) has by and large purposefully avoided
reporting on Mbeki’s panel. As the most widely read source of
cutting-edge science locally, the SAJS has yet to publish any paper
written by scientists working on the HIV envelope whose research edge
indicates it is endogenous and non infectious. So anyone depending on
the SAJS for latest news on HIV/AIDS have yet to read why exactly
fellow scientists coming from different edges in other fields have
objected from the start that HIV is a new retrovirus which caused
For the rest of us-in-the-street depending on our watchdog media,
the defamatory M&G article was it on the panel. The anonymous
author panellist felt impelled to confess that HIV-causes-Aiders took a
vow not to participate in the panel. They would take their R2600 daily
per diems and free plane tickets and accommodation at such as the
Sheraton in Pretoria for up to seven days depending on how flights
worked, but they wouldn’t participate in panel discussions. As part of
the Silent Treatment, some openly slept! Some never woke up.
Nevertheless, thanks to PAAP, everyone’s science is under scrutiny by
rule of complementarity.
It’s a media myth that "dissident science" is "pseudo" compared to
"orthodox science", which means Tom, Dick and Dial-a-PRO commentators
and Tony Leon, leader of the opposition Democratic Party have also not
been applying mind to matter.
At very least, in South Africa honest opinion on HIV/AIDS must take
into account the reality that we have a president who asked his Health
Minister some questions regarding Germs and how she treated them in
1999. She answered. He let world leaders know on 4 April 2000 his
government was entering into dialogue with any scientist in their
countries on the subject of the specific bug HIV (3).
Folly or grace? Mbeki asked as he went where no leader had taken
Cabinet & Country (4). Not to be outdone, the Clinton
Administration immediately declared HIV/AIDS a national security
The SA Cabinet in May 2000 endorsed improving collective knowledge
on HIV and AIDS as a commonsense thing to do, as long as PAAP did it.
As Mbeki put it: You can’t react to a catastrophe by doing ordinary
From all indicators, individual Cabinet members were hit for a
whammy listening to lectures about a virus not being able to cause a
syndrome, if you think about it. Two years later one or two still
suffer cerebral paralysis. Connectivity challenges also exist elsewhere
in government notably the Department(s) of Health, ham-in-the-sandwich
minister(s), out-on-a-limb premier(s), all the president’s scientists
and the media’s seemingly neverending earnestly important bleeding
heart pollsters who also do not apply mind to matter.
"Who’s Who" Panel Reality
Mbeki’s panel has included the crème de la crème locally and
internationally. Membership has not remained static and the panel’s
work is ongoing – such as the review of Mother-to-child-Transmission of
HIV and treatment with nevirapine and AZT (5). While members
participate in their personal capacities, they are the who’s who of
HIV/AIDS research in South Africa from major universities and
institutions, including my alma mater University of the
Internationally the panel includes Dr Luc Montagnier of the Pasteur
Institute, France, who in May 1983 published a paper in Science in
which he claimed to have isolated a new retrovirus
Lymphadenopathy-Associated Virus (LAV). What he didn’t claim was that
it caused AIDS. (6) He sent a sample of his virus to Dr Robert Gallo at
the US National Institutes of Health. In May 1984 Gallo et al published
four papers also in Science (7-10) claiming identification of a
retrovirus dubbed Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus-III (HTLV-III). Exactly
what Gallo et al identified was hotly disputed from day of
In 1985 it was pointed out that genetically Gallo’s and Montagnier’s
RNA viruses were indistinguishable. A squabble ensued. Arbitration went
to the US courts and
US President Ronald Reagan and the French Premier Jacques Chirac
intervened. An agreement was signed in which the disputed "it" was
renamed "Human Immunodeficiency Virus" and the profits from a test to
detect the presence of "HIV aka HTLV-III aka Lav" genetic material were
HIV Discovery Reality
Whatever "it" is, Montagnier and Gallo are credited as
co-discoverers by anyone involved in HIV research. In South Africa
circa May 1999 I started investigating after reading Nobel prize-winner
Dr Kary Mullis explaining why his PCR invention was being misused in
HIV/AIDS research (11). South African researchers had two things in
common: no one could give a reference to the founding paper(s) proving
HIV causes AIDS and no one was aware of any opposition at all to the
As a journalist I walked through the transformation from Apartheid
to democratic rule with the scientific community from 1977 to the
present. I am sure I will be forgiven for saying that in some respects
those that stayed behind – and came back - contributed to the brain
drain. I knew by the end of May 1999 that HIV/AIDS science in this
country was short of the edge of the world’s envelope. I got over shame
at trippling over the obvious by hindsight and l never doubted it was
grace that brought the Rainbow Nation a second president of integrity
who in addition followed scientific method and didn’t kiss babies for
Mbeki’s panel of advisors included representatives of UNAIDS, the
US’s National Institutes of Health (NIH) and its Centre’s for Disease
Control (CDC) and leaders of high profile international activist
organisations such as the International AIDS Society, organiser of the
bi-annual International AIDS Conferences like Durban 2000 and unlimited
grant funded IAPAC (International Association of Physicians in AIDS
Care); as well as the US-based Henry J Kaiser Foundation, which pays
health reporter salaries, etc etc etc.
The Clinton Administration sent four representatives to the first
panel meeting in May and one was elected a full member. The panel grew
to 60-odd members at the second meeting on 3 July 2000. At that stage
it involved perhaps twice as many observers and participation in a six
week Internet debate between the two on a password protected site.
On 4 July 2000, at the end of the second meeting scientists were
forced willy nilly by moderators and facilitators to devise tests to
prove their science. One of these was announced by the Minister of
Health Dr Manto Tshabalala-Msimang. A team comprising Dr Malegapuru
William Makgoba, president of the Medical Research Council; Dr Harvey
Bialy former editor of Bio/Technology and Dr Helene Gayle of the
Centres for Disease Control would "focus on the key question of
validating the reliability of the tests we use in the diagnosis of
HIV/AIDS," the Health Minister said, and added: "We expect a
detailed report at the completion of this task before the year
"Once And For All" Test Reality
The task was not completed by the end of 2000. Very little more was
heard of it publicly bar for "leaks" that US and SA laboratories had
exchanged blood samples to see if given the same test kits the
laboratories could achieve comparable results. If there have been
results, they have not been made public. Africa’s solitary dissident
panellist Professor Sam Mhlongo, Chief Practitioner and head Family
Medicine at Medunsa received an unscheduled visit from a new US Science
desker and companion who only asked questions about the company the
prof was keeping.
The Makgoba et al test was described as "settling the science once
and for all".by PAAP Chief Moderator Dr Khotso Mokhele, president of
the National Research Foundation. His PhD from Harvard is in
microbiology and he signed off the panel’s Interim Report released on 4
So, what happened to stall this all important test that would take 4
to 6 weeks to complete? I don’t know exactly. What I know includes:
- M&G front-paged Makgoba applying for another job. Dr Helene
Gayle left the CDC after the publication of the Interim Report
"seconded" to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
- When Bush took over the Whitehouse, the phones in the Clinton AIDS
unit offices were left to ring.
- In June 2001 Bush, like Mbeki who was on a state visit to the US at
the time, did not attend the UN AIDS Conference in New York in
consciously competent, that’s the scientific way, agreement with the
protocol established by a prior European Union & Allies decision to
downgrade what the UN had hoped would be a World Summit on AIDS
attended by heads of state. It wasn’t so much a snub of Kofi Annan who
got the Nobel Peace Prize, but rather heavyweight world leaders giving
UNAIDS CEO Peter Piot a "don’t call us" along with fingering headlines
screaming WHO doomsday stats.
- While on his co-incidentally arranged to co-incide with UNGASS
State visit States-side, Mbeki just happened to pop up at a certain
laboratory in Pennsylvania, home of the cracked but intact liberty
- Around the same time, US Agency for International Development head
said Africans "had no concept of Western Time" so, among other things,
it was no use giving them time-dependent antiretrovirals (13)
The PAAP’s Interim Report was an independent summary by a premier
African scientist/administrator and an international committee of
moderators (14). Their report noted only two points of consensus:
HIV/AIDS statistics were unreliable and no one agreed on a definition
HIV/AIDS statistics for South Africa including those quoted by
government, Metropolitan Group, LoveLife, Henry J Kaiser Foundation,
UNAIDS, WHO and even Clem Sunter et Alan Whiteside (panel member) (15)
are extrapolations and mathematical models estimated from annual
ante-natal clinic surveys of pregnant women conducted in South Africa
These surveys involving annually about 20,000 blood samples and
based on a test to detect "HIV infection" have fatal flaws, 14 members
of the panel argued. Principle flaw was surrogate protein markers were
used in "HIV tests" being used in South Africa to infer the presence of
HIV – as opposed to proteins specific to HIV. Ergo: tests based on
non-specific surrogates, could not be used to diagnose specific
infection with "HIV" with any degree of certainty. Their arguments are
supported by manufacturers of HIV tests. "At present, there is no
recognised standard for establishing the presence or absence of
antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV- 2 in human blood," says the
disclaimer included in all Abbott AXSYM HIV1, HIV2 Elisa test kits –
the official test used in the antenatal clinic surveys.
Makgoba’s test was going to sort this out. My guess is that no one
talking to him at present knows how to do it. It’s either that or once
again they have bits of RNA and no retrovirus and don’t know why they
failed – again!
AIDS Definition Reality
The second area of consensus in the PAAP, "was the need for the
case definition of AIDS to be standardised for clinical practice in
South Africa" (Interim Report 3.8.5). Mbeki’s panel consisted of
people from the four corners of the earth. None of those countries
Health Departments agree on a definition of AIDS or how to diagnose
"IT", or treat "IT". Imagine that – all panel members agreeing that
none of them agreed on the definition of what "it-HIV aka LAV aka
HTLVIII" was supposed to cause.
How then do health professionals diagnose "it’s" disease "IT"? The
answer is simple: by a laboratory test. As already detailed and
re-argued in what follows - sans standards for "it", it’s a free for all
including visual recognition by laboratory technicians.
HIV Isolation Reality
Synthesis of cutting-edge research indicates the genetic sequences
presently identified "HIV" do not constitute an infectious, exogenous
retrovirus that is sexually transmitted (16).
A strong European-led school has insisted for 18 years that
"retrovirus" is an erroneous classification of the genetic material
currently identified as "HIV". This forms the basis of therapies for
people suffering immune stress (17) At a biological (as opposed to a
microbiological or genetic) level the largest grouping (18) has
repeatedly pointed out starting with critiques of the 1984
Gallo/Montagnier papers that HIV has not been isolated as set out by
Robert Koch and integrated into science as the standard known as Koch’s
This refers to isolation as in biological embodiment – an
identifiable entity rather than DNA or RNA of an entity. In order to
cause anything, a germ has to have an embodiment even if it is a
micro-parasite. It must be distinguishable from the host.
A group of scientists led by biophysicist Eleni
Papadopulos-Eleopolus from the University of Western Australia and
Royal Perth Hospital proposed a test to prove this claim one way or
another in the Interim Report. (Interim Report 9.6-8) It would be a
quick way to get rid of dissidents and dissention on this issue once
and for all.
Presidential AIDS Advisory Panel Reality
The reality of PAAP is that for the first time in 18 years,
HIV-causes-AIDS science was condensed into a manageable review
statement in the Interim Report released 4 April 2001. Given the
dramatic circumstances, people were drawn in to reading it who hitherto
had not been engaged in HIV research specifically, but not any member
of the political opposition in South Africa. For the first time readers
would have seen their own areas of expertise interpreted by HIV/AIDS
researchers. They input into Mbeki’s dialogue through whatever channels
Germ Theory Versus Gene Theory Reality
It’s been 10 months since the Interim Report was released 4 April
2001, the reality for South Africa and the world is that the larger
Germ versus Gene Theory of disease and "heal yourself" versus "drugs"
therapy debate is ongoing. In the process, knowledge of the
Can-a-virus-be envelope has hugely inflated. But by law of
complementarity that also means it has got incredibly dense. In the
case of orthodollartors it has the clarity of goulash.
For the sake of clarity - when it comes to the proposal that HIV is
a germ, it has been settled bar for Dial-a-zackies. I’m all for the
Papadopulos-Eleopulos et al test going ahead even if we have to lock
some of them up in Big Brother’s studio. Then all except those toyi
toying can see the difference between "biological isolation" and RNA in
human blood as reshuffled genetic material originating with the host
(19). That is endogenous and non-infectious, not exogenous and
infectious, "junk genes" which make up about 70% to 95% of a human
being’s entire DNA blueprint, and "junk" only because relatively little
is known about them.
In a Special Report: "HIV, Families and Medical Justice" in US
Mothering Sept/Oct 2001 (20), Oxford journalist and panel observer
Neville Hodgkinson highlighted one class of this junk genome, HERVS
(Human Endogenous Retroviruses)
"They may also boost or coordinate protective immune responses
and could be responsible for passing on an acquired capacity for such
responses from mother to child during pregnancy."(21)
"HERVs have been demonstrated to come out of the
genome under the very circumstances in which "HIV/AIDS" is commonly
diagnosed --conditions of stress including infection, malnutrition, and
"People produce antibodies against their HERVs, and
not surprisingly, they test positive for HIV. All retroviruses are
similar, and our genome is full of dormant retroviruses -- over 2
percent of the genome is retroviral. Thus I have come to suspect that
retroviruses are found in sick people but are not the cause of
sickness. Their release into the bloodstream is a consequence of the
sickness. People who are under stress often test positive for HIV even
though they have never been 'infected" (22).
Amen, says Dr Howard B Urnovitz, an expert on HERVs (23) who with et
al (24) showed that as patients got sick, their antibodies to their own
genes (anti-HERV antibodies) could be detected (25).
The technology is already being applied to genetically fingerprint
exactly what is killing animals – or people. For instance,
organophosphate chemicals detectable in urine and breast milk, maybe
DDT in KwaZulu-Natal to combat malaria or toxins blown on the wind from
never out of sight industries in Gauteng. These two provinces are first
and second in the annual ante-natal clinic surveys for high antibody
counts. Urnovitz points out that these types of chemicals cause junk
gene rearrangements (26) Urnovitz outlined the problems with HIV tests,
including urine ones like his own, at an Oak Ridge Conference in 1999
(27). His message was: "The most positive thing to come from our
analysis of urine HIV antibody tests was that the human junk genome was
active in other medical conditions. This provided the clue to us that
junk genomes were active in chronic disease and was masked by the HIV
tests. Also, we advanced the idea that HIV env sequences might arise
from exposure to chemical substances." (28) Later in February 2000,
Urnovitz, supported by testimony from Luc Montagnier, told a
Congressional Committee that toxic exposures rearranged junk genes.
(29). Urnovitz commented to me: "The clues to human disease lies in
the blood of Gulf War Syndrome veterans. Why? Because no ethics
violators could find a bacteria or virus fast enough to start a new
religion. We were forced to look at the enormous amount of genetic
material in the blood. I was the first to discover that the RNA in the
blood was reshuffled genes, not from a virus, but from the HOST.
(His caps)." (30)
On 28 October 1999 Mbeki reported to Parliament that he had major
problems with antiretroviral toxicity. Urnovitz’s latest appearance
before a congressional committee was 24 January 2002 on the current
problem with medical research including HIV/AIDS (31). Hopefully
Congress already knows that there is no agreement on what "it" or "IT"
is and therefore "it/IT" statistics can only be wonky. If all this is
news, hopefully it is good news.
Take Away Reality
"The take away message is that you have to look at all the junk
and not just HERVs. HERVs are only about 1% percent of the whole
genome. You have to consider all the junk (LINEs, SINES, Alus,
microsatellites, redundant sequences, etc) if you are ever going to
solve the puzzle. The AIDS research structure is incorrectly overloaded
by virologists when the answer lies in the proper balance of the right
scientific disciplines," Urnovitz comments. (32) Needless to say,
this all invokes a vastly different interpretation of exchanges of
bodily fluids and mother-to-child-transmission of genetic scraps with
names like pol, nef, env and gag. It’s a textbook paradigm shift from
"undesirable and always fatal" to "desirable and life preserving". It
follows that trying to nuke microscopic pals with chemotherapy may not
be the best intervention. In fact "no intervention" may be the rule –
and profile the chemo toxin(s).
For gags & gang fanatics on the HIV envelope (27) Dr Urnovitz
adds: "Montagnier and I looked at his famous Group O HIV that he
isolated from a French farm woman with no apparent risk factors. I took
the virus envelope apart and showed how you could build an HIV envelope
from scratch by recombining parts of the human genome." (33).
Exactly what opponents of the HIV causes Anything hypothesis have said
from the start: HIV is a laboratory Frankenstein. It isn’t HIV and it
doesn’t cause IT. It’s HERV junk, but HERVs don’t cause anything.
HERVs, including HERV-it (aka HIV aka LAV), are effects not causes.
Another class of HERV reaction is called cancer, which is the opposite
of cell death, as Duesberg pointed out so many years ago now. (2).
In what way is HIV/AIDS a massive misrepresentation of poorly
controlled research and free for all communication, propelled by an
obsessive preoccupation with getting rid of germs instead of looking at
the total picture? Since the only way to know something is in the
context of something else, the multidisciplinary spirit essential to
exercise academic freedom has to be rekindled in educational
institutions. As it stands, for 18 years South Africa’s training and
teaching institutions, have failed in turning out graduates capable of
questioning HIV science no matter what angle they came at it.
Until institutions where tomorrow begins today come up to speed
collectively on these realities, HIV/AIDS will continue to be an
The author is a partner at David Allen & Associates, and
former science writer at The Star, Johannesburg.
1. Mail & Guardian, 8 September 2000.
2 Duesberg PH. (1987). Retroviruses as carcinogens and pathogens: Expectations and reality. Cancer Res. 47:1199-1220. See also interview Waytt Gibbs, W. Scientific American. August 2001
3 Mbeki's Heads of State letter dated 3 April 2000 was leaked from Whitehouse and picked up by the DP which passed it on to media with shock horror statement published 19 April in South Africa.
4 Sheraton Hotel, Pretoria. 6 May 2000 hardcopy www.gov.za Video: www.reclaimthebrain.com
5 Papadopulos-Eleopulos E; Turner VF, Papadimitriou JM, Alfonso H, Page BAP; Causer D; Mhlongo S; Fiala C; Miller T, Brink A, Hodgkinson N. "Mother to Child Transmission of HIV and its Prevention with AZT and Nevirapine - A Critical Analysis of the Evidence". Perth Group 2001 www.leederville.net
6 Barré-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, et al. (1983). "Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)". Science 220:868-71
7 Gallo RC, Sarin PS, Gelmann EP. (1983). "Isolation of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)". Science 220:865-867.
8 Popovic M, Sarngadharan MG, Read E, Gallo RC. "Detection, Isolation, and Continuous Production of Cytopathic Retroviruses (HTLV-III) from Patients with AIDS and Pre-AIDS". Science 1984 224:497-500.
9 Sarngadharan M, G., Popovic M, Bruch L."Antibodies Reactive to Human T-Lymphotrophic Retroviruses (HTLV-III) in the Serum of Patients with AIDS". Science 1984 224:506-508.
10 Schupbach J, Popovic M, Gilden RV, Gonda MA, Sarngadharan MG, Gallo RC. "Serological analysis of a Subgroup of Human T-Lymphotrophic Retroviruses (HTLV-III) Associated with AIDS". Science 1984 224:503-505.
11 Mullis, Kary. "Dancing Naked in the Mind Field". Pantheon, 1998
12 "Comments by the Minister of Health Dr Manto Tshabalala Msimang at the conclusion of the second meeting of the presidential review panel". GCIS Press statement 4 July 2000.
13 Herbert B, "Refusing to save Africans", The New York Times, 11 June 2001
14 Complete list of who was invited and by whom, as well as who attended (panellists, moderators and facilitators) Presidential Aids Advisory Panel Interim Report. Chapter 1. 4 April 2001
15 "Declaring War on Aids", Research and Analysis. Embark Wits Business School May 2001, pg 18-25
16 Contact author at firstname.lastname@example.org for customised references.
17 Vast continent with many great centres of learning. Start with Study Group for AIDS therapy. c/o Felix A. de Fries, Eglistr. 7 CH-8004 Zürich Tel./FAX: 0041 1 401 34 24.Email: email@example.com
18 Perth Group's Special South African HIV/AIDS website: www.leederville.net Website www.virusmyth.com/aids/perthgroup
19 Urnovitz HB, Tuite JJ, Higashida JM, Murphy WH, "RNAs in the sera of Persian Gulf War veterans have segments homologous to chromosome 22q11.2", Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 6:3, May 1999, pg 330-335). Website: www.chronicillnet.org
20 Hodgkinson N, "Molecular Miscarriage: Is the HIV Theory a Tragic Mistake", Special Report: Aids, Families and Medical Justice. Sept/Oct 2001 www.mothering.com
21 Steele EJ, "Somatic Selection and Adaptive Evolution: On the Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics". University of Chicago Press, 1981, p 42-57. Rothenfluh H and Steele EJ, "Lamarck, Darwin and the Immune System", Today's Life Science. August 1993.
22 Personal Communication, Neville Hodgkinson, quoted in 20 above from Rudolf Werner, professor of microbiology at the University of Miami Medical School
23 Urnovitz HB, Murphy WH. "Human Endogenous Retroviruses: Nature, Occurrence and Clinical Implications in Human Disease". Clinical Microbiology Reviews, Jan 1996, Vol 9, pg. 72-99
24 Stevens RW, Baltch AL, Smith RP, McCreedy BJ, Michelsen PB, Bopp LH, Urnovitz HB, "Antibody to Human Endogenous Retrovirus Peptide in Urine of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Positive Patients", Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 6:6, Nov 1999, pg 783-786
25 Personal communication 21 February 2002
26 Personal communication 23 February 2002
27 Urnovitz HB, Sturge JC, Gottfried TD, Murphy WH, "Urine Antibody tests: New Insights into the dynamics of HIV-1 infection" Clinical Chemistry 45:9 1999, pg 1602-1613
28 Personal communication. 11 February 2002
30 Personal communication 17 February 2002
Also www.chronicillnet.org (look under AIDS for "Testimony of Howard B. Urnovitz, Ph.D. (1/24/02)"
32 Personal communication 17 February 2002
33 Personal communication 11 February 2002