VIRUSMYTH HOMEPAGE


TABLE 6

Drug diseases diagnosed before the AIDS era, and in HIV-free addicts

Disease Drugs used (1) References AIDS defining
immunodeficiency C, H, N, A (Achard et al., 1909; Terry and Pellens, 1928; Briggs et al., 1967; Sapira, 1968; Harris and Garret, 1972; Geller and Stimmel, 1973; Pillari and Narus, 1973; Brown et al., 1974; Louria, 1974; McDonough et al., 1980; Gottlieb et al., 1981; Jaffe et al., 1983; Tubaro et al., 1983; Layon et al., 1984; Culver et al., 1987; Donahoe et al., 1987; Haverkos and Dougherty, 1988b; Selwyn et al., 1988; Novick et al., 1989; Mientjes et al., 1991; Pillai et al., 1991; Larrat and Zierler, 1993; Mientjes et al., 1993; Sadownick, 1994; Brettle, 1996)
YES
Kaposiís sarcoma N (Jaffe et al., 1983; Haverkos et al., 1985; Haverkos, 1988; Haverkos and Dougherty, 1988a; Archer et al., 1989; Friedman-Kien et al., 1990; Marquart et al., 1991)
YES
candidiasis C, H (Pillari and Narus, 1973; Stoneburner et al., 1988; Rogers et al., 1989)
YES
pneumonia C, H, N (Gottlieb et al., 1981; Jaffe et al., 1983; Selwyn et al., 1988; Stoneburner et al., 1988; Ettinger and Albin, 1989; Mientjes et al., 1993; Hayes et al., 1994; Brettle, 1996)
YES
lymphadenopathy C, H (Geller and Stimmel, 1973; Pillari and Narus, 1973; Espinoza et al., 1987; Des Jarlais et al., 1988; Brettle, 1996)
YES
tuberculosis C, H (Firooznia et al., 1973; Courtwright, 1982; Layon et al., 1984; Stoneburner et al., 1988; Braun et al., 1989; Brudney and Dobkin, 1991; Hayes et al., 1994)
YES
weight loss C, H (Pillari and Narus, 1973; Des Jarlais et al., 1988; Brettle, 1996)
YES
dementia/
encephalopathy
C, H (Stoneburner et al., 1988; Koch, 1990; Aylward et al., 1992; Larrat and Zierler, 1993; Hayes et al., 1994; Brettle, 1996)
YES
diarrhea C, H (Des Jarlais et al., 1988; Muñoz et al., 1992; Brettle, 1996)
YES
fever C, H (Des Jarlais et al., 1988; Ettinger and Albin, 1989; Brettle, 1996)
YES
spontaneous abortion,
premature birth,
congenital abnormalities
C, H (Fricker and Segal, 1978; Lifschitz et al., 1983; Alroomi et al., 1988; Rogers et al., 1989; Toufexis, 1991; Finnegan et al., 1992; Larrat and Zierler, 1993)
YES
night sweats C, H (Des Jarlais et al., 1988; Brettle, 1996)  
impotence C, H (Larrat and Zierler, 1993; Brettle, 1996)  
severe atherosclerosis A (Wilson et al., 1996)  
tooth loss/caries C, H (Pillari and Narus, 1973)  
dermatitis C, H (Pillari and Narus, 1973; Brettle, 1996)  
hepatitis C, H (Dismukes et al., 1968; Pillari and Narus, 1973; Layon et al., 1984)  
epileptic seizures C, H (Brettle, 1996)  
endocarditis C, H (Layon et al., 1984; Stoneburner et al., 1988; Mientjes et al., 1993; Brettle, 1996)  
bronchitis C, H (Ettinger and Albin, 1989; Lerner, 1989; Brettle, 1996)  

1. A, amphetamines; C, cocaine; H, heroin; N, nitrites.



References

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Archer, C. B., Spittle, M. F. and Smith, N. P. (1989) Kaposiís sarcoma in a homosexualó10 years on. Clin. Exper. Dermatol. 14: 233-236.

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Brown, S. M., Stimmel, B., Taub, R. N., Kochwa, S. and Rosenfield, R. E. (1974) Immunologic dysfunction in heroin addicts. Arch. Intern. Med. 134: 1001-1006.

Brudney, K. and Dobkin, J. (1991) Resurgent tuberculosis in New York City. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 144: 744-749.

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Ettinger, N. A. and Albin, R. J. (1989) A review of the respiratory effects of smoking cocaine. Am. J. Med. 87: 664-668.

Finnegan, L. P., Mellot, J. M., Williams, L. R. and Wapner, R. J. (1992) Perinatal exposure to cocaine: Human studies. In: Cocaine: Pharmacology, Physiology and Clinical Strategies, pp. 391-409, Lakoski, J. M., Galloway, M. P. and White, F. J. (eds.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

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Fricker, H. S. and Segal, S. (1978) Narcotic addiction, pregnancy, and the newborn. Am. J. Dis. Child. 132: 360-366.

Friedman-Kien, A. E., Saltzman, B. R., Cao, Y., Nestor, M. S., Mirabile, M., Li, J. J. and Peterman, T. A. (1990) Kaposiís sarcoma in HIV-negative homosexual men. Lancet 335: 168-169.

Geller, S. A. and Stimmel, B. (1973) Diagnostic confusion from lymphatic lesions in heroin addicts. Ann. Intern. Med. 78: 703-705.

Gottlieb, M. S., Schanker, H. M., Fan, P. T., Saxon, A., Weisman, J. D. and Pozalski, J. (1981) Pneumocystis pneumoniaóLos Angeles. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports 30: 250-252.

Harris, P. D. and Garret, R. (1972) Susceptibility of addicts to infection and neoplasia. New. Engl. J. Med. 287: 310.

Haverkos, H. W. (1988) Kaposiís sarcoma and nitrite inhalants. In: Psychological, Neuropsychiatric and Substance Abuse Aspects of AIDS, pp. 165-172, Bridge, T. P., Heather, H. and Johnson, M. (eds.) Raven Press, New York.

Haverkos, H. W. and Dougherty, J. (1988a) Health hazards of nitrite inhalants. Am. J. Med. 84: 479-482.

Haverkos, H. W. and Dougherty, J. A. (eds) (1988b) Health Hazards of Nitrite Inhalants. 83, US. Dept. Health & Human Services, Washington, DC.

Haverkos, H. W., Pinsky, P. F., Drotman, D. P. and Bregman, D. J. (1985) Disease manifestation among homosexual men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a possible role of nitrites in Kaposiís sarcoma. J. Sex. Trans. Dis. 12: 203-208.

Hayes, T., Altman, R., Akili-Obika, A., Buehler, J. W., Costa, S. J., Beil, J. K., Moore, L. G., Massey, J. W. and Williams, N. M. (1994) HIV-related deaths from selected infectious diseases among persons without AIDS in New Jersey. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 7: 1074-1078.

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Koch, T. (1990) Uninfected children of HIV-infected mothers may still suffer nervous problems. CDC AIDS Weekly July 30, p9.

Larrat, P. E. and Zierler, S. (1993) Entangled epidemics: cocaine use and HIV disease. J Psychoactive drugs 25: 207-221.

Layon, J., Idris, A., Warzynski, M., Sherer, R., Brauner, D., Patch, O., McCulley, D. and Orris, P. (1984) Altered T-lymphocyte subsets in hospitalized intravenous drug abusers. Arch. Intern. Med. 144: 1376-1380.

Lerner, W. D. (1989) Cocaine abuse and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: tale of two epidemics. Am. J. Med. 87: 661-663.

Lifschitz, M. H., Wilson, G. S., Smith, E. O. and Desmond, M. M. (1983) Fetal and postnatal growth of children born to narcotic-dependent women. J. Pediatr. 102: 686-691.

Louria, D. B. (1974) Infectious complications of nonalcoholic drug abuse. Annu. Rev. Med. 25: 219-231.

Marquart, K.-H., Engst, R. and Oehlschlaegel, G. (1991) An 8-year history of Kaposiís sarcoma in an HIV-negative bisexual man. AIDS 5: 346-348.

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Mientjes, G. H. C., van Ameijden, E. J. C., Weigel, H. M., van den Hoek, J. A. R. and Countinho, R. A. (1993) Clinical symptoms associated with seroconversion for HIV-1 among misusers of intravenous drugs: comparison with homosexual seroconverters and infected and non-infected intravenous drug misusers. Br. Med. J. 306: 371-373.

Muñoz, A., Vlahov, D., Solomon, L., Margolick, J. B., Bareta, J. C., Cohn, S., Astemborski, J. and Nelson, K. E. (1992) Prognostic indicators for development of AIDS among intranvenous drug users. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 5: 694-700.

Novick, D. M., Ochshorn, M., Ghali, V., Croxson, T. S., Mercer, W. D., Chiorazzi, N. and Kreek, M. J. (1989) Natural killer cell activity and lymphocyte subsets in parenteral heroin abusers and long-term methadone maintenance patients. The Journal of Pharmacologyt and Experimental Therapeutics 250: 606-610.

Pillai, R., Nair, B. S. and Watson, R. R. (1991) AIDS, drugs of abuse and the immune system: a complex immunotoxicological network. Arch. Toxicol. 65: 609-617.

Pillari, G. and Narus, J. (1973) Physical effects of heroin addiction. Am. J. Nursing 73: 2105-2109.

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Sapira, J. D. (1968) The narcotic addict as a medical patient. Am. J. Med. 45: 555-588.

Selwyn, P. A., Feingold, A. R., Hartel, D., Schoenbaum, E. E., Adderman, M. H., Klein, R. S. and Freidland, S. H. (1988) Increased risk of bacterial pneumonia in HIV-infected intravenous drug users without AIDS. AIDS 2: 267-272.

Stoneburner, R. L., Des Jarlais, D. C., Benezra, D., Gorelkin, L., Sotheran, J. L., Friedman, S. R., Schultz, S., Marmor, M., Mildvan, D. and Maslansky, R. (1988) A larger spectrum of severe HIV-I-related disease in intravenous drug users in New York City. Science 242: 916-919.

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VIRUSMYTH HOMEPAGE