Pharmac. & Ther. Vol. 55: 201-277, 1992
AIDS ACQUIRED BY DRUG CONSUMPTION AND OTHER NONCONTAGIOUS
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, 229 Stanley Hall, University
of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, U.S.A.
5. Drugs and Other Noncontagious Risk Factors Resolve
All Paradoxes of the Virus-AIDS Hypothesis
A direct application of the hypothesis that drugs and
other noncontagious risk factors cause AIDS proves that it can resolve
all paradoxes of the virus-AIDS hypothesis:
(1) It is paradoxical to assume that AIDS is new because
HIV is new. HIV is a long-established, perinatally transmitted retrovirus.
It just appears new because, being a chronically latent virus, it only
became detectable with recently developed technology (Section 3.5.1). Instead
drugs are the only new health risks in this era of ever improving health
parameters. Thus AIDS is new because the drug epidemic is new.
(2) According to the virus-AIDS hypothesis it is paradoxical
that AIDS did not "explode" into the general population as predicted
(Institute of Medicine, 1986; Shorter, 1987; Fineberg, 1988; Heyward and
Curran, 1988; Blattner, 1991; Mann and the Global AIDS Policy Coalition,
1992). AIDS has remained restricted for over 10 years to only 15,000 annual
cases (0.015%) of the over 100 million sexually active heterosexual Americans,
and to only 25,000 (0.3%) of the 8 million homosexuals (Centers for Disease
Control, 1992b), although venereal diseases (Aral and Holmes, 1991), unwanted
pregnancies and births (Hoffman, 1992; The Software Toolworks World Atlas™,
1992) are on the increase in America. (The homosexuals represent about
10% of the adult male population (Turner et al., 1989; Lesbian and
Gay Substance Abuse Planning Group, 1991a).) This is because psychoactive
drugs and AZT, not HIV, are the causes of AIDS.
(3) The paradox of a virus causing risk group-specific
and country-specific AIDS diseases is resolved by distinct nonviral AIDS
causes including drugs and other noncontagious pathogens like long-term
transfusions and malnutrition (Sections 2.1.3 and 3.4.5, Tables 1 and 2).
(4) The paradox of a male-specific AIDS virus (i.e. 90%
of all American and 86% of all European AIDS cases are males), although
no AIDS disease is male-specific, is resolved by male-specific behavior
and by male genetic disorders. In America and Europe males consume over
75% of all "hard" injected psychoactive drugs (Section 4.3.1),
homosexual males are almost exclusive users of oral aphrodisiacs like nitrites
(Section 4.3.2) and nearly all hemophiliacs are males.
(5) The paradox of a 10-year-slow AIDS virus, i.e. AIDS
occurs only after "latent (!) periods" of HIV that average 10
years in adults and 2 years in babies (Section 2.2), is resolved by the
cumulative toxicity of long-term drug use. According to the CDC the "lifetime
use" of drugs determines the AIDS risk (Jaffe et al., 1983b).
On average 5-10 years elapse in adult drug addicts between the first use
of drugs and "acquiring" drug-induced AIDS diseases (Layon et
al., 1984; Schuster, 1984; Savona et al., 1985; Donahoe et
al., 1987; Espinoza et al., 1987; Weber et al., 1990).
The time lag from a nitrite habit to Kaposi's sarcoma has been determined
to be 7-10 years (Newell et al., 1985b). Severe T-cell depletion
and immunodeficiency is also "acquired" by hemophiliacs on average
only after 14-15 years of treatment with blood concentrates (Section 18.104.22.168).
In babies of drug-addicted mothers AIDS appears much sooner
than in adults because of a much lower threshold of the fetus for drug-pathogenicity.
This also resolves the secondary paradox of a discrepancy of 8 years between
the "latent periods" of HIV in babies and in adults.
(6) It is paradoxical that American teenagers do not get
AIDS, although over 70% are sexually active and about 50% are promiscuous
(Turner et al., 1989; Burke et al., 1990; Congressional Panel,
1992) and 0.03% to 0.3% carry HIV (Section 3.5.2). The paradox that a sexually
transmitted "AIDS virus" would spare American and European teenagers
is resolved by the fact that only years of drug consumption, and years
of transfusions for hemophilia (Section 22.214.171.124) will cause AIDS-by which
time these teenagers are in their twenties.
(7) The apparent paradox that the same virus would at
the same time cause two entirely different AIDS epidemics, one in Africa
and the other in America and Europe is an artifact of the AIDS definition.
Because of the HIV-based AIDS definition, a new drug epidemic in America
and Europe and an epidemic of old Africa-specific diseases like fever,
diarrhea and tuberculosis (Section 126.96.36.199) were both called AIDS when
HIV became detectable. Since HIV is endemic in over 10% of Central Africans,
over 10% of their AIDS-defining diseases are now called AIDS (Section 2.2).