The same diseases are found in similar frequencies in HIV positive and HIV negative intravenous drug users, and the overall mortality in the two groups is the same.

The HIV antibody tests are not standardised. No gold standard has been used and may not even exist to determine specificity. The tests are also not reproducible. The proteins which are considered to be specific to HIV may in fact represent normal cellular proteins. A positive test may represent nothing more than cross-reactivity with the many non-HIV antibodies present in AIDS patients and those at risk.